Maurycy Markusfeld (1849-1900) – sworn lawyer in Płock in 1889-1900. He was the son of a respected doctor of medicine and the first doctor of the St. Valentine hospital in Kutno in the years 1844-1850, Samuel Stanisław Markusfeld (1810-1880) and Emilia née Lewensztajn. Maurycy Markusfeld […]
Beniamin Koryto (born 1802, Sochaczew) and Tyla nee Sierota (born 1804, Służewo) were the first of the Koryto family to settle down in Płock (more about the Koryto family – link). Israel (born 1847), one of their sons, married Gitla Tauba nee Szmiga (born 1854). […]
Maksymilian Eljowicz (1890-1942) – painter, born in Raciąż as the son of the craftsman Chaim Pinkas. At the beginning of the 20th century, his family moved to Płock. Here Maximilian started studying, then working in a watchmaker’s workshop. Since an early age he showed outstanding capabilities for painting and drawing, he began studying at the School of Fine Arts in Warsaw, under the direction of Stanisław Lenc. He continued his artistic education in Paris and Munich. He exhibited his works in Warsaw and Płock, including the Płock Art Exhibition in the Artistic Club of Płock in 1932. He painted portraits, landscapes, nudes and still lifes. Color played an important role in his painting. He was a lecturer at the Drawing and Painting Courses in Warsaw, which operated at the Jewish Society for the Promotion of Fine Arts. He also dealt with interior decoration and shop windows. His friends were Icchok Lejb Perec and Noach Dawidsohn. During the occupation, Maksymilian Eljowicz was in the Warsaw Ghetto. He was murdered in Treblinka with his wife Stefania née Frendler (born in 1898) and son. His works remain in the collections of the Scientific Society of Płock, the Diocesan Museum in Płock and the Emmanuel Ringelblum Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw.
Askanas K., Sztuka Płocka, Płock 1991
Mórawski K., Kartki z dziejów Żydów warszawskich, Warszawa 1993
Przedpełski J., Stefański J., Żydzi płoccy w dziejach miasta, Płock 2012
Symcha Guterman (Symcha’s biogram can be found here – link) was born on September 1, 1903 in Warsaw, as the son of the talmudist Menachem Mendel (born ca. 1870) and Bajla Gitla née Fiszman (born ca. 1872). His mother came from a wealthy family from Kozienice on the Zagożdżonka river, where her father – Berek Fiszman (born in 1831) owned a mill. The Gutermans had many children (apart from Symcha, the children of Menachem Mendel and Bajla Gitla were: Jankiel, Szlomo, Idka, Chaja, Mindla and Sara), and was definitely a loving, warm and solidary family full of love and devotion. During World War I they moved to Płock, where Menachem Mendel’s brother – Rachmil (born 1875), who professionally dealt with basket production, lived (his company was registered at Szeroka Street at number 57). Symcha Guterman, after serving in the infantry of the Polish Army, founded a knitting workshop in Płock, in which his mother and sisters also worked. In 1930 he was one of the co-founders of the Płock department of the Frajhajt organization. As a member of its board, he became a well-known activist in the field of cultural and educational activities.
In 1933, Symcha married Ewa Alterowicz from Płock (born in 1908), daughter of Jakub (1844–1919) and Necha née Tyszman (born in 1858). The family of Ewa’s mother came from Płońsk. Necha’s father was a tailor Nucha Tyszman (born ca. 1834), her mother – Frajdla née Szostak (born ca. 1832). Necha married Jakub from the village of Młotkowo in 1885. The young married couple lived in Płock at Jerozolimska Street, and in 1886 their first son Pinkus was born. Necha and Jakub were also the parents of Icek Szlama (born in 1892), Mojżesz (born in 1895), Eliasz (born in 1898), Sura (1889–1905) and Czarna (born in 1896). During the interwar period, Icek Szlama Alterowicz worked in Płock as a printer, Eliasz Alterowicz – as a tailor (he lived with his wife Tyszla and daughters Chana and Fradel at 59 Kwiatka Street), Icek Szlama Alterowicz, married Gitla née Cynamon (their children were Abram Hersz and Barbara Miriam), he was a typesetter by profession. In 1927, Czarna Alterowicz married the tailor Josek Jesion from Gostynin.
Ewa Guterman was a tailor by profession. Together with Symcha and his son Jakub, born in 1935, they lived in a one-story house at the end of Sienkiewicza Street, near the seminary. Opposite lived the relatives of Ewa: Szajna Fuks née Alterowicz from Kosemin (born in 1858) with her daughter Małka (born in 1889) and her children from the first marriage with Dawid Józef Chuczer – Chana Łaja (Lodka) (born in 1920) and Icek (born 1914) as well as children from her second marriage – Jakub Grosman (born 1928) and Sara Grosman (born 1930).
Symcha Guterman fell in the Warsaw Uprising on August 1, 1944. He left a valuable diary in which he wrote down the occupation history of the Jews of Płock. Ewa Guterman, who after the war married Szlomo Chaim Grzebień, in the years 1945–1949 was a member of the board of the Jewish Committee in Płock. In 1950, she emigrated to Israel with her husband and son. Jakub Guterman – a painter and illustrator who is a member of the Haogen kibbutz, maintains constant contact with Poland and often visits his hometown, being very fond of it. Lodka Chuczer, who was “the second mother” for Jakub Guterman, also survived World War II. In 1950, she emigrated to the United States with her husband Felek.
Photos from the private collection of Jakub Guterman:
The 77th anniversary of the outbreak of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Boruch Szpigel and Izaak Bernsztejn.
April 19, 2020 marks the 77th anniversary of the outbreak of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. In connection with the anniversary, we present two people from the Płock region, whose activities were related to the Warsaw ghetto.
Bronek (Boruch) Szpigel from Wyszogród (1919–2013, pictured on the right) was one of the resistance activists in the Warsaw Ghetto and a participant in the uprising that broke out on April 19, 1943. Before the war, he belonged to the left-wing Bund organization and was a friend of Marek Edelman. From October 1942 he was a member of the Jewish Combat Organization. In the uprising he fought in the area of Smocza, Nowolipki and Leszno. On Nowolipie he detonated one of the two mines possessed by the fighters.
On April 29 he left the ghetto, from May to October 1943 he fought in a partisan unit in the Wyszkowski Forest. During the Warsaw Uprising he stayed at 64 Żelazna Street. After the war, he lived in Canada.
Izaak Bernsztejn (1900-1943, pictured on the left) is also associated with the history of the Warsaw ghetto. He was a lawyer, teacher and publicist from Płock. During the German occupation he stayed in the ghetto. He was a collaborator of Emanuel Ringelblum and wrote to the chronicle of the Warsaw Ghetto. Two essays by him were found in the Ringelblum Archive: “Warsaw – 1941” and the “Kelsm Preacher”. Bernsztejn and his family died in the ghetto in unknown circumstances.
In his essay “Hunger in Warsaw”, he wrote:
“… I saw today a black wagon; its open door let me see a box with a corpse. A woman bereft of strength hurried after it, her cry only to herself. A street filled with people who looked at her and heard her cries, astonished yet silent. She ran, she dragged herself after the coffin, like a bird that is wounded and every one around her looked and stared. My friend told me today that of a family of eight in his neighborhood only two remained, a mother and her son. He did not know whom of the two hunger will cut down first. And they walk about, mother and son, yellowish, dried out bodies, lit up with phosphorous shine…”
Grupińska A., Odczytanie Listy. Opowieść o powstańcach żydowskich, Kraków 2002
Przedpełski J., Stefański J., Żydzi płoccy w dziejach miasta, Płock 2012
Fragment of the essay “Hunger in Warsaw”: http://www.zchor.org